How to Grow
Preparation of Soil
- Timely cultivation of the soil, Blade harrow (Bakhar) is used instead of the plough
- The use of Bakhar may sometimes be preceded to one to three ploughing with an iron plough.
- For the irrigated crop, the land is given a pre- sowing irrigation (Palewa or Raund) and the number of ploughing is reduced.
- Where white ants or other pests are a problem, Aldrin 5% or BHC 10% dust @ 25 kg/ha should be applied to the soil; after the last ploughing or before planking.
- In the majority of cases, the rainfed wheat is not fertilized by the farmers owing to economic reasons. It is desirable that 2 or 3 tonnes of farmyard manure/hectare or some other organic matter is applied 5 or 6 weeks before sowing. 40 kg of N and 20 kg of P2 O5 /hectare gives a considerable boost to the wheat yield, if applied 10 cm deep (3-4 cm below the seed) at or before sowing.
- With assured fertilizer supply: Nitrogen(N)@80-120kg/ha, Phosphorus(P2O5 )@40-60kg/ha, Potash (K2 O) @ 40 kg/ha (this quantity may be adjusted according to soil test results).
- Under fertilizers constraints: N @ 60-80 kg/ha, P2 O5 @ 30-40kg/ha, K2 O @ 20-25 kg/ha (this quantity may be adjusted according to soil test results.
- For the late sown irrigated wheat crop, the NPK fertilizer dose recommended is: N – 60-80 kg/ha, P2O5 – 30-40 kg/ha, K2O- 20-25 kg/ha,
- If zinc deficiency is acute, a dose of 50 kg of Zinc Sulphate/ha is recommended. In moderately deficient soils, 25 kg of this chemical/hectare is sufficient.
- Proper irrigation is most essential for dwarf wheat specially when high doses of fertilizers are applied.
- The following irrigation schedule should be followed if winter rainfall is not available during the period of wheat growing.
- First Irrigation 20-25 days after sowing (Crown root-initiation stage).
- Second Irrigation 40-45 days after sowing (tillering stage)
- Third Irrigation 70-75 days after sowing (late jointing stage)
- Fourth Irrigation 90-95 days after sowing (flowering stage)
- Fifth Irrigation after 110-115 days of sowing (dough stage)
- Depending upon the availability of supply and winter rainfall this irrigation schedule may be adjusted accordingly. However it should be remembered that the first irrigation in crop’s life is most important.
water, controls them.
Pest and Disease Management
- Seed borne disease- Loose Smut, Bunt etc,
- Remove the smutted ear heads as soon as they emerge from the boot leaf and burn.
- Treat each kg of seeds with 1.5 gm Bavistin/J .K. Stein / Derosol 50 W.P. as wet treatment before sowing.
- Rust- Dark brown or black or orange yellow pustules are formed on the leaves, leaf-sheaths and stems in the colder months. Rust cause drying up of foliage and consequent reduction in yield.
- Treat the seeds before sowing as mentioned above.
- Spray Dithane M-45/Indofil M-45 at the rate of2 Kgs or Dithane Z- 78 at the rate of 2.5 kg mixed with 100 litres of water approximately per hectare as soon as the symptoms are first noticed. Two to three spraying at fortnightly interval will effectively control the disease or dust Sulphur at the rate of 25 kg per hectare.
- Termites and White Ants- Termites or ants are serious problem in irrigated sandy or sandy loam soil.
- Irrigate the affected field as it prevents termite damage to some extent.
- At the time of application of basal dose of manure, apply Ekalux 1.5 % dust @ 45 Kgs per hectare, and mix with the soil to a depth of 8-10 cm by repeated ploughing of the field.
- In case of termites attack in standing crop, drench the soil with 2.5 litres of Dursban 20 EC mixed in 1000 litres of water approximately. The insecticides can also be mixed with irrigation water.
Harvesting, Storage and Drying
- Dry. the harvesting time varies from zone to zone and also depends whether the crop is grown under rainfed or irrigated conditions. The rainfed crop reaches the harvest stage much earlier than the irrigated crop.
- The growing period is shortened by the high temperatures. If the crop does not ripen before the onset of the hot westerly winds, the shrivelling of grain takes place
- The yields under rainfed conditions are generally low. They may be as low as 3 to 4 quintals/hectare in peninsular or central India. Under irrigated conditions, yield up to 80 quintals/hectare was recorded.
- The grains should be thoroughly dried before storage. The storage life of the grain is closely related to its moisture content.
- Grains with less than 10% moisture store well. In eastern India, the storage of wheat grains without losing viability for the next crop is a big problem due to high humidity prevailing in that area. The storage pits, bins or godown should be moisture proof and should be fumigated to keep down the stored grain pests including rats. Zinc Phosphide is very effective against rats.